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Henkel to Boost Soap and Sanitizer Output in US

Image courtesy of Henkel North America geneva-facility_High.jpg
A view of the Henkel plant in Geneva, NY.

Adhesives, beauty care, and home care products manufacturer Henkel is committing $23 million to expand production of Dial brand hand soap and sanitizer products at its production facilities in Geneva, NY and West Hazelton, PA, the company announced in a recent release.

“We are thrilled to announce a supply expansion of essential products in North America,” Doug Parkinson, vice president of operations at Henkel’s plant in Geneva, said in a statement. “It’s not only a win-win for our business, it will support our local job and economic growth. Investing in Dial will provide consumers and businesses with much needed home and personal hygiene products.”


$17.3 million will be used to acquire new equipment and technology for new foaming hand soap and sanitizer lines at its Geneva plant, which will increase the facility’s production capacity by 45% to 55%, according to the company. Prior to Henkel’s acquisition of the plant in 2018, the Geneva site primarily manufactured professional hair care products. As part of the new project, the site will be rebranded from Zotos Professional to Henkel to reflect the plant’s expansion into antibacterial soap and hand sanitizer production.

Henkel is injecting $2.5 million into its West Hazelton plant and investing $3 million in new equipment for both facilities.

“With this new Henkel investment and the addition of the powerhouse Dial brand, our modern operations support the addition of 180 highly-skilled and talented employees that we are attracting from our local community to help further strengthen the Finger Lakes economy,” Parkinson said.

Powder & Bulk Solids reported in June 2019 that Henkel completed a $19 million project at the West Hazelton site to add a new production line for Dial body wash and Dial liquid hand soap. 180 new jobs were created as a result of that investment.

General Mills Finishes Expansion of Cereal Production Plant

Image courtesy of Flickr user jeepersmedia (Mike Mozart) 14172469711_5fd0e41988_k.jpg

American food firm General Mills recently completed an expansion project at its Cinnamon Toast Crunch cereal production plant in Covington, GA that increased the site’s capacity and efficiency, Georgia Gov. Brian P. Kemp announced in a release Tuesday.


“General Mills has a long legacy of making food the world loves, right here in Georgia,” Roxie Simon, plant manager of General Mills Covington, said in a statement. “Cinnamon Toast Crunch is one of our most beloved brands as the number two cereal in the United States, and growing. We are proud to partner with the state to create new jobs, tap into some great local talent, and expand our capacity to make even more of this family favorite in Covington.”

The enhanced operations are slated to start next week. Opened in 1989, the plant manufactures several types of cereal and snack products.

About 400 workers are currently employed at the plant. 40 new jobs were created as a result of the expansion.

Packaging Design

Who's Hiring Packaging Designers Today?

Many packaging professionals found our July 2020 post of open positions for packaging engineers helpful — the slideshow has been among our top-read articles since it was published. But packaging departments also need graphic and structural designers and developers. If you possess these skills and you’re looking for an opportunity, this new slideshow is for you.

We researched open “Packaging Design” positions on various job platforms: Glassdoor, Monster, Indeed, and LinkedIn. We found opportunities throughout the country, from California to New Jersey — as well as a couple touting the ability to work remotely(!).

The companies reflect a variety of markets, from foods and pharmaceuticals to personal care products and electronics. Popular consumer packaged goods companies include Procter & Gamble, Coty, McCormick & Co., and method. Healthcare manufacturers include Smith & Nephew, Pharmavite LLC and RB.

A few firms specialize in ecommerce and supply chain. Even the folks at aerospace and defense technology company Northrop Grumman need help.

Titles range from intern to director.

No doubt, some of these positions will be filled quickly. If you’re interested in something, jump on it now, before it’s too late. Happy Hunting!



New Grade of Recycled Polystyrene Commercialized for Food Packaging

Sarayut_sy/Adobe Stock green shoot in lightbulb

Materials supplier Trinseo and German packaging company Fernholz have collaborated on the development and commercialization of a new grade of post-consumer recycled polystyrene (rPS). The form-fill-seal (FFS) formulation incorporates 40% rPS, depending on final application, thanks to Trinseo’s technology that embeds the material during polymerization by means of a solvent-based process.

“With r-PS technology, we have developed a process that will help the plastics industry conserve resources and reduce oil consumption,” said Nicolas Joly, Vice President, Plastics & Feedstocks, at Trinseo. “We are very pleased to work with Fernholz as our collaboration partner to jointly respond to consumer and market expectations, offering companies a tangible solution for more sustainable packaging.”

Fernholz is working with Trinseo to incorporate r-PS into sheet production, which can be used for food-packaging applications in compliance with food-safety requirements. To date, full-scale field tests for processing, migration, sensory testing, and other common parameters have revealed that r-PS can be readily processed on conventional FFS machines, eliminating the need for costly equipment upgrades.

“The feedback we have received from customers so far has been overwhelmingly positive,” said Uwe Fernholz, Managing Director at Fernholz. “The market has been waiting for a solution like this for a long time. As a result of the positive feedback, we are very confident that this breakthrough in recycled packaging made from polystyrene will help the value chain to meet its sustainability goals.”

The new material grade is already being trialed by several European dairy companies, some of whom have launched new products using the recycled polystyrene food packaging. As one of the few materials with PCR content available in large quantities, Trinseo has the capacity to supply the dairy industry and related sectors with several thousand tons of the material. Furthermore, due to the recycling technology involved in the process, mono-material packaging, though preferable, is not mandatory. The lid or label can be safely separated as part of the recycling process, said the companies.

Fernholz operates two sites in Meinerzhagen and Schkopau, Germany, where it manufactures packaging by means of thermoforming and injection molding, and extrudes polystyrene, polypropylene, and PET sheet. The company processes approximately 2,000 tons of plastics each month and produces around 2.5 billion packaging products annually.

Flexible Packaging

Packaging Reduces Food Waste, Enriches Diets of the Needy

Practices and packaging that help reduce food waste are excellent choices. However, diverting usable food to those in need before it becomes unusable is a best practice.

In late August, Dow Packaging & Specialty Plastics hosted a virtual tour of the Produce Rescue Center, a collaboration between Dow and Montgomery County Food Bank (MCFB) in the Houston area. Dow sponsors the Produce Rescue Center.

The two organizations are collaborating to help the local Houston community by delivering fresh produce in the best possible condition to those in need.

Dow also provided MCFB with the equipment needed to wrap out-of-spec – but still edible and nutritious – produce that would have gone to a landfill. This keeps it fresh for longer, allowing the food bank to deliver higher quality food to more people over greater distances. Produce that isn’t edible is sent to a local composting facility instead of going to landfill, and the plastic packaging can be recycled via the Store Drop-Off program.

DowJohn Kreger holding a bag of produce at the MCFB Produce Rescue Center

Packaging Digest learned that John Kreger at the Montgomery County Food Bank invited Dow to participate in the project and that the food bank pays for the films.

Those are “high-oxygen-transmission-rate polyethylene produce films,” discloses Larry Effler, Dow development scientist.

This permits a shelf-life extension such that a head of Romaine lettuce, for example, that typically lasts 5-6 days will stay edible for 20-25 days.

Interestingly, no gas-flush is used.

General Packaging Equipment of Houston designed and fabricated the sealing machine in conjunction with the Produce Rescue Center. The packaging machinery manufacturer has a history of helping the needy.

DowJohn Kreger and the Montgomery County Food Bank bagging machine

Flexible Packaging

New Shapes Make Outstanding Stand-Up Pouches

CPNA Cheerpack Shapes Hyggut

Convenience in an efficient packaging type is an effective combination, which is undoubtedly true of stand-up pouches: the market is projected to grow from $20.1 billion in 2018 to reach $28.9 billion by 2023 at a CAGR of 7.5% from 2018 to 2023. Notably, the spouted pouch segment that offers easy opening and reclosure while preventing spills is projected to grow at the highest CAGR in value, according to the study.

A vendor in this fast-growing market is Cheer Pack North America (CPNA), West Bridgewater, MA, which claims to be one of a select few companies in North America that manufactures premade spouted flexible pouches in a variety of shapes.

At their most basic, a pinched-waist pouch can provide a better grip for small hands. With a little more creativity distinctive shapes allow progressive brands to stand out from the rest of the packs.

And, if truly inspired, a silhouette can result in instant iconic recognition for maximum shelf presence — consider bear-shaped honey bottles or the fluted outline of a Coca-Cola bottle. It may be the shape of things to come in flexible packaging.

An interview with Al Madonna, CPNA VP of marketing, resulted in the following four takeaways of options and opportunities in this market.

Stand-up pouches continue to gain a foothold in food categories.

Premade stand-up pouches have been successful in the baby food and nut butter industries and are an eco-friendly alternative to other packaging types. They are considered eco-friendly by addressing the first need in the hierarchy of sustainability, which is the reduction of material.

CPNACheerpack pouches shape options

Shape options are primarily limited by a brand’s creativity.

Spouted flexible pouches can be shaped to resemble a company’s current packaging that may not be in a pouch.

Shapes can also be used to reinforce what the product is, such as an apple-shaped flexible pouch for apple juice or sauce.

Another example is creating a pouch in the shape of an animal for a brand owner whose brand communication uses that animal.

Additional design options are available.

CHEERShapes are custom-made to align with different client messages and are available in multiple film structures and print surfaces to address almost any product application or design.

Pouches are available with or without a top gusset.

Different fitment styles are another consideration. CheerPlus Bevels caps address the need for a sleek spouted pouch cap design that appeals to consumers who are in their tweens or older.

CPNACheerpack Danone shaped pouch

CPNA can rapidly develop, prototype, and test multiple shapes.

The company’s Innovation Center was launched in 2018 and is designed to provide testing of films, resins, and additives for designing and manufacturing flexible pouches, fitments, and caps for food and nonfood products.

The equipment available at the facility includes three filling machines for water qualification testing, an SLA machine for rapid 3D prototyping, a pouch film sealer, and an injection-molding machine.

The facility is also used as a laboratory for new product development that allowed CPNA to earn US design patents for new products that were created there.


Coty Cosmetics Saves $500,000 per Year with Pick-and-Pack Robo-Carts

Coty — the worldwide cosmetics parent of brands including Sally Hansen, Rimmel and CoverGirl — projects $500,000 annual savings at its Maryland plant from the use of four mobile carts, each armed (pun intended) with two pick-and-pack cobots (adaptable to higher-than-collaborative speeds) from Universal Robots. The carts are key to meeting demand, taking the plant from one to three shifts a day, freeing 13 employees to transfer to less repetitive, ergonomically safe tasks. Quality is also up via integration with Cognex camera-based machine vision communicating with the carts over Ethernet IP. You want testimonials and metrics? You got ’em — from Paul Baublitz, Coty project manager; Chris Sydorko, owner of systems integrator Sydorko Automation


3 Robotics Predictions for the Remainder of 2020

TUV Rheinland feature Jan 17 2019 - Ryan Braman - 0050.jpg

Turns out robots are a hit during the pandemic, particularly mobile robots in manufacturing and warehouse operations. We started to see this at the beginning of the pandemic when manufacturers, distributors, and warehouse operators started to deploy more automation in the face of social distancing and stay-at-home workers.


TUV Rheinland, a testing, inspection, and certification company, recently released its top three robotics predictions for 2020 in a report titled, “Safety is Still Top Priority.” The title of the report exemplifies life in the world of robot automation during COVID-19. As an example of the mood in industrial robotics, one robot manufacturer reported a 13% increase in sales to grocery stores, distribution centers, and hospitals in the first quarter of 2020.

TUV RheinlandJan 17 2019 - Ryan Braman - 0058.jpg

Ryan Braman, director of commercial products at TUV Rheinland, programs a collaborative robot.

With no clear end to the challenges of the pandemic insight, the robotics industry is having a big impact on the manufacturing and warehousing sectors in the immediate future, according to TUV’s research. The three predictions for the robot market during 2020 include:

  • Growing emphasis on mobile robots
  • Implementation of automation for safer working environments
  • Rapidly progressing technologies, such as electro-sensitive protective equipment and AI


Growing Emphasis on Mobile Robots

According to TUV, part of the reason mobile robots have become particularly useful during the pandemic is because of their flexibility. “Mobile robots can afford many benefits over traditional industrial robots or stationery collaborative robotic applications. They also provide many improvements to productivity and overall employee health and satisfaction,” Ryan Braman, director of commercial products at TUV Rheinland, tells Packaging Digest's sister publication Design News. “Due to advances in sensing and vision systems, mobile robots have become easier to implement and much more scalable over the years. This allows manufacturers to easily program them to carry out new tasks—and a greater number of tasks—throughout a facility.”

One of the advantages of mobile robots is that they can relieve human workers of brain-numbing work. The relief has the additional benefit of reducing risk for workers. “The jobs that mobile robots take on tend to be very repetitive, dangerous, and cumbersome which leads to better employee satisfaction, health, and safety,” says Braman. “Where a traditional industrial or collaborative robotic system was stationary and needed to be fed material, a mobile robot can now bring materials from one station to another in a safe and efficient manner.”


Automation Deployed for Safer Working Environments

The robots are taking on a number of tasks that are risky for human workers, especially when the tasks are repeated without interruption for extended periods of time. “Many tasks in a manufacturing and industrial setting are extremely repetitive, involve heavy or awkward lifting, and need to take place in less-than-ideal areas involving potentially dangerous machinery,” says Braman. “In many workplaces, some of the most frequent injuries come from slips and falls, stress/strain, and contact with equipment.

For many manufacturing and distribution operations, the worker once relieved of the difficult and repetitive tasks can take on safer and more rewarding work. “When humans take on a repetitive task for a long period of time, they are much more likely to make a mistake resulting in injury. Robots can take on the majority of this burden by performing these tasks and freeing up their human counterparts to perform more rewarding and complex jobs,” says Braman. “As an unplanned benefit in today’s environment, robotics can make it possible to have proper social distancing within a facility while still maintaining the necessary level of productivity.”


Growth in Electro-Sensitive Protective Equipment and AI

Part of the increased safety factor for robots comes from the growing sophistication of robot components, particularly in sensor technology. “Robotics technologies used to be complex and extremely difficult to adapt, relegating robotics to functioning within a cage, separate from humans,” says Braman. “Today, new types of sensing technologies such as laser scanners, radars, and other types of electro-sensitive equipment allow robots to sense where safety-related objects such as humans or stairs are and adjust their path or stop movement until the object is removed. This enables robots to work alongside humans safer than ever before. As this technology improves, the range of tasks that robots will be able to take on will also greatly improve beyond what it is today.”

Developments in machine learning and artificial intelligence have had a big impact on the capabilities of robots, particularly mobile robots. “AI is quickly changing how robots are programmed and operate. Traditionally, robots were extremely good at performing exactly the task that they were programmed to do,” says Braman. “If there was a change or disruption, the robot would not be able to handle it, and productivity would stop. In this way, robots of the past were difficult to program and use.”

The new technologies have made robots teachable, which means they are increasingly agile and adaptable. “With AI and machine learning, robots can now adapt to changes in their environment to keep moving. They can even find better and more efficient ways of performing tasks than humans initially envisioned,” says Braman. “In addition, they become much easier to program and teach, which allows people with minimal training to develop very complex applications.”


Rob Spiegel has covered automation and control for 19 years, 17 of them for Design News. Other topics he has covered include supply chain technology, alternative energy, and cybersecurity. For 10 years, he was owner and publisher of the food magazine Chile Pepper.


Artificial Brain Gives Robots Unprecedented Sensing Capabilities

NUS roboticbrain.jpg
This novel robotic system developed by National University of Singapore NUS researchers comprises an artificial brain system that mimics biological neural networks, which can be run on a power-efficient neuromorphic processor such as Intel’s Loihi chip and is integrated with artificial skin and vision sensors.

Robots have come a long way in their functionality, but there are still many sensing capabilities that can’t be achieved by these systems that compare to how humans interact with their environments.

To solve this issue, researchers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) have created a complex artificial brain system called NeuTouch that mimics human neural networks to provide neuromorphic processing for robotic systems. This should provide them with more sophisticated sensing functionality, including what’s needed to pick up, hold, and manipulate objects in a way that mimics human interactions.

The current problem with robotic systems is they depend on visual processing rather than the actual sense of touch that humans have to help us handle and manipulate objects, says Benjamin C.K. Tee, an assistant professor at NUS Materials Science and Engineering, who co-led the development of NeuTouch with Assistant Professor Harold Soh from NUS Computer Science.

“Robots need to have a sense of touch to interact better with humans, but robots today still cannot feel objects very well,” he tells Packaging Digest's sister publication Design News. “Touch sensing allows robots to perceive objects based on their physical properties, such as surface texture, weight, and stiffness. Such tactile sensing capability augments the robot’s perception of the physical world with information beyond what standard vision and auditory modalities can provide.”


Building a Complete System

The new solution builds on technology Tee and fellow researchers created last year when they developed an artificial nervous system that can give robots and prosthetic devices a sense of touch on par with or even better than human skin.

This system, called Asynchronous Coded Electronic Skin (ACES), can detect touches more than 1,000 times faster than the human sensory nervous system, as well as identify the shape, texture, and hardness of objects 10 times faster than the blink of an eye, Design News reported at the time.

NeuTouch can process sensory data from ACES using neuromorphic technology, which is an area of computing that emulates the neural structure and operation of the human brain. To do this, researchers integrated Intel’s Loihi neuromorphic research chip into the system, Tee says.

By using ACES, NeuTouch can mimic the function of the fast-adapting (FA) mechano-receptors of a human fingertip, which captures dynamic pressure, or dynamic skin deformations, Tee says.

 “FA responses are crucial for dexterous manipulation tasks that require rapid detection of object slippage, object hardness, and local curvature,” he tells Design News.


Testing for Results

To test the system, researchers fitted a robotic hand with ACES and used it to read braille, passing the tactile data to Loihi via the cloud to convert the micro bumps felt by the hand into a semantic meaning.

In these experiments, Loihi achieved over 92% accuracy in classifying the Braille letters, while using 20 times less power than a normal microprocessor.

In other tests, researchers demonstrated how they could improve the robot’s perception capabilities by combining both vision and touch data in a spiking neural network. They tasked a robot equipped with both artificial skin and vision sensors to classify various opaque containers containing differing amounts of liquid. They also tested the system’s ability to identify rotational slip, which is important for stable grasping.

In both tests, the spiking neural network that used both vision and touch data was able to classify objects and detect object slippage with 10% more accuracy than a system that used only vision.

Moreover, NeuTouch also could classify the sensory data while it was being accumulated, unlike the conventional approach where data is classified after it has been fully gathered.

The tests also demonstrated the efficiency of neuromorphic technology; Loihi processed the sensory data 21% faster than a top-performing graphics processing unit (GPU) while using more than 45 times less power.

Researchers published a paper on their work online and presented their findings at the Robotics: Science and Systems conference.


Applications and Post-COVID 19 Uses

Some applications for NeuTouch include integrating the system into robot grippers to detect slip, which is key to manipulating fragile objects safely and with stability, such as in factory or supply-chain settings, Tee tells Design News.

“Accurate detection of slip will allow the robot controller to re-grasp the object and remedy poor initial grasp locations,” he says. “This feature can be applied to develop more intelligent robots to take over mundane operations such as packing of items in warehouses, which robotic arms can easily adapt to unfamiliar items and apply the appropriate amount of strength to manipulate the items without slippage.”

The system also can be used to create autonomous robots “capable of deft manipulation in (unstructured) physical spaces, since the robots have the ability to feel and better perceive their surroundings,” he adds.  

Moving forward, researchers plan to continue their work to develop the artificial skin for applications in the logistics and food manufacturing industries where there is a high demand for robotic automation, Tee tells Design News.

This type of functionality will especially become more critical in a post-COVID-19 world for creating applications that avoid human contact by letting robots do the work, he says.


Elizabeth Montalbano is a freelance writer who has written about technology and culture for more than 20 years. She has lived and worked as a professional journalist in Phoenix, San Francisco, and New York City. In her free time, she enjoys surfing, traveling, music, yoga, and cooking. She currently resides in a village on the southwest coast of Portugal.

Cannabis Packaging

New Cannabis Packaging Enhances the Flavor Experience

Terpene-preserving packaging protects the flavor profile of Vireo’s 1937 Cannabis Flower, which is sold in Vireo dispensaries and third-party dispensaries.

Protecting the flavor of cannabis flower throughout distribution starts with preserving the terpenes in the flower. Vireo Health International, a Minneapolis-based cannabis company, has developed a packaging design that does exactly that.

The company’s patent-pending TerpSafe packaging curbs the gradual loss of terpenes and other compounds after harvest, protecting the flavor of retail cannabis flower. Terpenes are organic compounds that give distinctive aromas to various types of cannabis.

Closure design is the key element in Vireo’s new packaging: The lid features an aeration compartment that contains a tablet infused with terpenes (see image in slideshow). Over time, those terpenes infuse the cannabis flower. Vireo has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with eBottles420 to manufacture and distribute the terpene-preserving packaging system.

Using lab testing and real-world analyses, Vireo determined that cannabis flower in conventional packaging lost almost half its native terpenes within four weeks of storage in the package. In contrast, terpene content increased over the same period when the flower was packed in TerpSafe packaging.

Eric Greenbaum, Vireo’s chief science officer, invented the terpene-preserving packaging concept after conversations with the company’s internal cultivation team and other cannabis cultivators revealed that one of their biggest concerns was the loss of terpenes from their cannabis.

“Terpenes are the volatile compounds in cannabis and other plants responsible for their characteristic taste and aroma profiles. Terpenes may also be responsible for various pharmacological properties of cannabis, in particular the differing effects of different strains. Due to their volatile nature, they tend to evaporate rapidly,” Greenbaum explains.

In addition to helping cannabis cultivators and consumers, Vireo’s terpene-preserving packaging could provide benefits for packagers of food, beverages, and health/beauty products that contain their own terpenes. Greenbaum answers questions from Packaging Digest about the packaging concept’s development, commercialization, and potential applications.


What tests did Vireo perform to quantify the terpene decrease with conventional packaging and the terpene increase with your new packaging?

Greenbaum: Vireo’s scientific director, Justin Bueno, Ph.D., set up a series of controlled experiments to assess the function of the TerpSafe technology. The analytical terpene-quantification testing was performed by a state-licensed, third-party lab blind to the conditions of the experiment. The terpene analysis was completed using gas chromatography, the standard industry method for terpene assessment. This work is pending publication (accepted manuscript) in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.


Does the terpene-preserving benefit continue after the container has been purchased and opened by the consumer?

Greenbaum: This is what sets TerpSafe apart from conventional terpene-preserving packaging. The TerpSafe package will continue to reinfuse the product after multiple openings. Dr. Bueno’s experiments were designed to test this exact question. His experimental design included conditions where the bottles were opened periodically over a period of weeks and conclusively showed that the terpene-preservation capabilities of our system are not adversely affected by multiple openings over time.


Is Vireo working on licensing this terpene-preserving packaging technology to companies in industries beyond cannabis?

Greenbaum: Vireo assessed non-cannabinoid terpenes and other volatiles during the development phase. This packaging system would be applicable for any product for which a long-lasting scent profile is desirable.

We are currently working with eBottles, which provides packaging solutions to multiple industries, including pharma, nutraceutical, and cannabis. Another interesting application would be with spices. The ability to preserve an intense flavor/scent profile with dried basil or rosemary, for example, would likely find immediate utility in that market.


How is the closure assembled?

Greenbaum: The closure assembly process is pretty straightforward and easy. In fact, we worked with eBottles to ensure that the TerpSafe line of packaging will assemble just like standard cannabis packaging. The system is being rolled out such that it will be compatible with manual or automated assembly. It will be up to the end users and dependent on what equipment they have.


How does the cost of the TerpSafe closure compare with the cost of a standard closure for this type of package?

Greenbaum: The system is marginally more expensive — less than 25 cents per package. We are confident that this slight increase in cost will provide meaningful ROI [return on investment] to cultivators insofar as it will result in longer functional shelf life and higher-quality cannabis for the end user.


What are the cannabis jars made of?

Greenbaum: The current iteration of our TerpSafe product is a closure system that incorporates the preservation elements into the cap. This enables the implementation of the system in a variety of eBottles jars — plastic, glass, large, and small.


Is the terpene-preserving packaging child-resistant?

Greenbaum: The packaging is child-resistant to the same ASTM standard used in the cannabis industry. The child-resistance mechanism is the same press lock seen on 53-mm containers sold by eBottles.


Did Vireo develop the terpene-saving packaging technology in-house or in partnership with eBottles420?

Greenbaum: Initial development work and technical proof-of-concept work was done by Vireo’s internal R&D team. Nik Goran, Vireo’s engineering director, led the collaboration with the eBottles team to finalize a go-to-market strategy and the initial products. We can’t say enough great things about the eBottles team — Robert Lerman and Mike Scudder. They’ve been amazing partners, and we would not have been able to come to market so rapidly without their collaboration.